Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academic publishing outlets that included The Leadership Quarterly Administrative Science Quarterly American Psychologist Journal of Management Academy of Management Journal Academy of Management Review Journal of Applied Psychology Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Organizational Science and Personnel Psychology. We then combined two existing frameworks (Gardner Lowe Moss Mahoney & Cogliser 2010; Lord & Dinh 2012) to provide a processoriented framework that emphasizes both forms of emergence and levels of analysis as a means to integrate diverse leadership theories. We then describe the implications of the findings for future leadership research and theory.
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