The relative impact of complementary leader behaviors: Which matter most?

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The relative impact of complementary leader behaviors: Which matter most?
The Leadership Quarterly

Despite conceptual overlap between the transformational–transactional model of leadership and the Ohio State two-factor model (i.e. Consideration and Initiating Structure) no systematic research examines correspondence among these behaviors or estimates their relative validities across a common set of outcomes. The current studies a) examine the factor structure of five key dimensions of these twomodels (transformational contingent reward laissez faire Initiating Structure and Consideration) and b) estimate relative validitieswith respect to two organizational outcomes: employee job satisfaction and perceptions of leadership effectiveness. Although results of a meta-analysis show that transformational leadership is significantly related to both Consideration (ρ=.74) and Initiating Structure (ρ=.50) results of two primary studies provide support for the independence of these leadership dimensions. Moreover dominance analyses (Budescu 1993) reveal that Consideration and transformational leadership are the most important predictors of employee job satisfaction and ratings of leadership effectiveness and each had incremental validity when controlling for the effects of the other. Overall results suggest that dimensions from both models are important predictors of employee outcomes.

The Leadership Quarterly Volume 23, Issue 3, June 2012, Pages 567–581

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