The present research aimed to examine the factorial structure of the State Hope Scale (SHS). In Study 1, using conﬁrmatory factorial analyses, two factorial structures were contrasted: a single-factor mode (representing a general hope construct) and a second-order factor model (with general hope characterized by agency and pathways). Results revealed that the two-factor model was more likely to be replicated. Furthermore, invariance analyses revealed that the two-factor structure applied equally across age groups and gender. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SHS was evaluated again. Once more, results conﬁrmed the superiority of the two-factor model. In addition, hope was positively linked to mental health.
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