This study investigates the influence of crisis on leader use of charismatic rhetoric. We examine leader charismatic rhetoric across two major crises longitudinally exploring potential long-term influences of charismatic rhetoric on perceptions of leader effectiveness. Using an inductive approach to theory generationwe draw upon findings fromthe data analysis of eight charismatic rhetoric constructs (collective focus temporal orientation followers'worth similarity to followers values and moral justifications tangibility action and adversity) to advance propositions regarding potential time and ceiling effects of charismatic rhetorical leadership on followers. Additionally we discuss the relationships between characteristics of the crisis and the use of charismatic rhetorical leadership. In doing so we identify potential boundary conditions for the use of charismatic rhetoric (as an element of charismatic leadership) within the context of different crises.
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