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The view over one's shoulder: The causes and consequences of leader's envy of followers

We propose a social comparison-based framework in which leaders' meta-perceptions of power relative to their followers can be a source of envy, which can then lead to varied behaviors. We provide a model summarizing the main points of this framework, and develop propositions discussing how and when these effects operate....

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Idiosyncratic deals and individual effectiveness: The moderating role of leader-member exchange differentiation

Extending prior research on idiosyncratic deals (i-deals), in the current study we examine the functioning of i-deals in the context of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation....

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Complementary person-supervisor fit: An investigation of supplies-values (S-V) fit, leader-member exchange (LMX) and work outcomes

By applying the supplies-values (S-V) fit approach from the complementary person-environment (P-E) fit literature to the leader-employee perspective, and drawing upon social exchange theory, we examine how fulfillment of different work values is related to Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and work outcomes....

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Transformational leadership and performance outcomes: Analyses of multiple mediation pathways

Transformational leadership (TFL) has been shown to affect employees' job performance, and the literature offers a large variety of explanatory processes....

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The entanglement of leader character and leader competence and its impact on performance

Whereas the micro- and macro-oriented leadership literatures have often studied leader competencies necessary for effective performance, the role of leader character in relation to competencies and performance has been to a large extent neglected....

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When managers become leaders: The role of manager network centralities, social power, and followers' perception of leadership

We explore how formal managers' centralities in both positive and negative networks predict followers' perceptions of their leadership....

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“Facing” leaders: Facial expression and leadership perception

This experimental study investigated the effect of a leader's expression of happy versus nervous emotions on subsequent perceptions of leadership and ratings of traits associated with implicit leadership theories (ILTs)....

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Incorporating temporality into implicit leadership and followership theories: Exploring inconsistencies between time-based expectations and actual behaviors

Given that time is such a critical contextual variable in organizations and effectiveness indicators rarely exclude timeliness, we argue that temporal individual differences are an unfortunate omission from implicit leadership theories (ILTs) and implicit followership theories (IFTs). Both implicit theories and time-based indi...

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Are there advantages to seeing leadership the same? A test of the mediating effects of LMX on the relationship between ILT congruence and employees' development

Although there has been an increased interest in implicit leadership theories (ILTs) over the last two decades, only a handful of studies have examined the effects of ILT congruence among leader-follower dyads....

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Effects of relational schema congruence on leader-member exchange

Drawing on social exchange processes in leader-member exchange (LMX), we posit that expressive relational schema (ERS) and instrumental relational schema (IRS), which refer to knowledge structures in social exchange processes, act as antecedents of follower-rated LMX....

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