The study of leadership has always evolved, but this is truer than ever before as we transition into the 21st century (Dinh et al. 2014). The rapid evolution in the study of leadership reflects real world realities in geopolitical and institutional change and in particular, the advancement of technology (Kremer, 1993). Hence, we have now entered into a digital era in which leadership itself has changed as well as the means through which we study it. To date, studies from various disciplines have contributed to our understanding of leadership in the digital era. These contributions have varied from theoretical and practical contributions to methodological advances in the means through which leadership is studied, including close versus distant leadership (Shamir, 1995). In management and applied psychology, research has explored how various forms of leadership facilitate group performance across different types of electronic media (Raghuram, Hill, Gibbs, & Maruping, 2018). Such research has quite a history in various domains, even leadership. For example, experimental work has investigated the effectiveness of leadership in faceto-face, desktop videoconferencing, or text-based chatting (Hambley, O’Neill, & Kline, 2007; Sosik, 1997). However, this research has not been leveraged sufficiently to better understand the various facets of leadership as a phenomenon.
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